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Bulgaria - History

Bulgarian Ancient History & World History Timeline

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Comparative overview - 15 000 BC

World Events

Migrations across Bering Straits into the Americas

On Bulgarian Land

Evidence of human habitation in the Bulgarian lands dates from the Middle Paleolithic Period (100,000 to 40,000 BC). Agricultural communities appeared in the Neolithic Period, and in the Bronze Age the lands were inhabited by Thracian tribes. /The Thracians were eventually expelled or absorbed by Greek, Persian, and Roman colonies, but traces of their culture remain in their monuments devoted to horse worship and in the mummer (Bulgarian: kuker) tradition that still survives in southwestern Bulgaria/.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the Balkans were populated well before the Neolithic Period (about 10,000 years ago). At the dawn of recorded history, two Indo-European peoples dominated the area: the Illyrians to the west and the Thracians to the east of the great historical divide defined by the Morava and Vardar river valleys. The Thracians were advanced in metalworking and in horsemanship. They intermingled with the Greeks and gave them the Dionysian and Orphean cults, which later became so important in classical Greek literature.

Migrations across Bering Straits into the Americas

Evidence of human habitation in the Bulgarian lands dates from the Middle Paleolithic Period (100,000 to 40,000 BC). Agricultural communities appeared in the Neolithic Period, and in the Bronze Age the lands were inhabited by Thracian tribes. /The Thracians were eventually expelled or absorbed by Greek, Persian, and Roman colonies, but traces of their culture remain in their monuments devoted to horse worship and in the mummer (Bulgarian: kuker) tradition that still survives in southwestern Bulgaria/.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the Balkans were populated well before the Neolithic Period (about 10,000 years ago). At the dawn of recorded history, two Indo-European peoples dominated the area: the Illyrians to the west and the Thracians to the east of the great historical divide defined by the Morava and Vardar river valleys. The Thracians were advanced in metalworking and in horsemanship. They intermingled with the Greeks and gave them the Dionysian and Orphean cults, which later became so important in classical Greek literature.

Semi-permanent agricultural settlements in the Old World

Earliest traces of cultural and social activities of the Thracians on the land of what is now Bulgaria.

Development of settlements into cities and development of skills such as the wheel, pottery, and improved methods of cultivation in Mesopotamia and elsewhere

In Thracian cities culture, crafts and cults thrived. Recent archeological excavations have yielded amazing findings: In the region of Stara Zagora /Bulgaria/ - the ruins of the first metal mines from the oldest European metallurgy (the end of the 5th millennium BC). Of the mines explored so far, 11 were for the mining of copper ore. Over 400 copper tools were found there. The carbon analysis of the excavated organic remains has established their exact age: 5568 years. The ruins of a number of ancient settlements were excavated in the area, traces of dwellings and funeral places.

Predynastic Egyptian cultures develop (5 500 – 3 100 BC) and begin using agriculture (c. 5 000 BC). The earliest known civilization arises in Sumer (4 500 – 4 000 BC). The earliest recorded date in the Egyptian calendar (4241 BC); the first year of the Jewish calendar (3760 BC). The first phonetic writing appears (c. 3500 BC). The Sumerians develop a city-state civilization (c.3000 BC). Copper was used by the Egyptian and Sumerians. Western Europe is Neolithic, without metals or written records.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Pharaonic rule begins in Egypt. King Khufu (Cheops), 4th dynasty (2700 – 2675 BC) completes construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza (c.2680 BC). The Great Sphynx of Giza (c.2540 BC) is built by King Khafre. The earliest Egyptian mummies; papyrus; Phoenician settlements on the coast of what is now Syria and Lebanon. Semitic tribes settle in Assyria. Sargon, the first Akkadian king, builds Mesopotamian Empire. The Gilgamesh Epic (c.3000 BC). Abraham leaves Ur (c. 2000 BC). Systematic astronomy in Egypt, Babylon, India and China.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

The most ancient civilization on the Indian subcontinent, the sophisticated and extensive Indus Valley Civilization, flourishes in what is today Pakistan. In Britain, Stonehendge was erected according to some unknown astronomical rationale. Its three phases of construction of construction are thought to have spun c.3000 – 1500 BC.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Hyksos invaders drive Egyptians from Lower Egypt (17th c. BC). Amosis I frees Egypt from Hyksos (c. 1 600 BC). Assyrians rise to power – cities of Ashur and Nineveh. Twenty-four-character alphabet in Egypt. Israelites enslaved in Egypt. Cuneiform inscriptions used by Hittites. Peak of Minoan culture on the Isle of Crete – earliest form of written Greek. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, develops the oldest existing code of laws (18th c. BC).

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Ikhnaton develops monotheistic religion in Egypt (c. 1375 BC). His successor, Tutankhamen, returns to earlier gods. Moses leads Israelites out of Egypt into Canan – Ten Commandments. The Greeks destroy Troy (c. 1193 BC). End of the Greek civilization in Mycenae with the invasion of Dorians. The Chinese civilization develops under the Shang Dynasty. The Olmec civilization in Mexico – stone monuments; picture writing.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Solomon succeeds King David, builds Jerusalem temple. After Solomon’s death, the kingdom was divided into Israel and Judah. Hebrew elders begin to write the Old Testament books of the Bible. The Phoenicians colonize Spain with the settlement of Cadiz.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Phoenicians establish Carthage (c.810 BC). The Iliad and the Odyssey, perhaps composed by the Greek poet Homer.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah. The first recorded Olympic games (776 BC). Legendary founding of Rome by Romulus (753 BC). Assyrian King Sargon II conquers Hittites, Chaldeans, Samaria (end of the Kingdom of Israel). The earliest written music. Chariots introduced into Italy by Etruscans.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

End of Assyrian Empire (616 BC) – Nineveh destroyed by the Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonians) and Medes (612 BC). Founding of Byzantium by the Greeks (c.660 BC). Building of Acropolis in Athens. Solon, Greek lawgiver (640-560 BC). Sapho of Lesbos, Greek poet (c.610-580 BC). Lao-tse, Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism (born c.604 BC).

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. Yet, they founded numerous beautiful centres of culture, religion and crafts.

  • An amazing recent discovery - a group of American historians and archeologists led by Dr. Stephen Guide decoded the Thracian calligraphic script and proved that it was the oldest script in the world – 7000 BC. What is more, it was the Thracians /the Thracian Hyksos dynasties ruling Egypt for 1600 years since 3100 BC/ who gave the Egyptians their script. /The group of scientists discovered in Eneolithic Thrace the original prototypes of the Book of the Dead found in the Pyramid Texts in Egypt./

  • The oldest gold treasure in the world was unearthed in an excavation site near the village of Hotnitsa /Veliko Tarnovo region, Bulgaria/. The golden adornments date back to 7000 BC, that is, they are 2000 years older than the Varna gold treasure, so far believed to be the oldest in the world. /The world-famous Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna, the largest (10 000 sq.m.) and richest in Europe and probably in the world (6,5kg of 23,5 carat processed gold), 300 burials dated to the late Halcolitic age (4400 – 4200 BC)/.

  • Not far from the Varna Necropolis the European oldest and world oldest salt-pan was found near Provadia. People that came from Thrace 5400 BC started yielding salt by evaporation of salt-water in special ceramic vessels. For that salt they were paid with gold from their neighbours - the Thracians and people sailing from Asia Minor.

  • The earliest traces of human civilisation discovered so far at Perperikon, one of the biggest and most significant Thracian centres, were dated to the late Neolithic Period, 6th-5th millennium BC. At that time, humans had not yet learned to work the face of the rock massif: fragments of Neolithic pottery were found deposited in the natural crevices of the cliff. However, Perperikon was not yet a settled village but a rock of worship. Next came the Eneolithic Period (or the Copper Age). Pits hewn in the rock and fragments of pottery found in them were dated to the late 5th - early 4th millennium B.C. What had gradually become an inhabited rock complex continued to develop during the Bronze Age. During the late Bronze Age in particular, 18th-12th century BC, Perperikon saw its first heyday, which probably coincided with the peak of the Mycenaean and the Minoan civilisations. The palace and all the other structures on Perperikon are an amazing achievement of architectural creativity and craftsmanship. One"s heart fills with awe as one passes through doors first opened a thousand years ago; steps onto thresholds that still keep the traces of generations long gone by; walks along mysterious passageways once lit by the light of torches

The Thracian system of religious and philosophical beliefs is virtually unknown. However, Dionysus and Orpheus undoubtedly stemmed from that tradition.

  • A dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. According to noted historian Bozhidar Dimitrov, "the dagger, which we believe is made of gold and platinum, most probably belonged to a Thracian ruler or to a priest ... No item of this type was found even in the legendary city of Troy." He also said that the 16-cm (6.3-inch) dagger is in perfect condition and extremely sharp. Over 500 other golden ornaments were also found in this tomb.

Numerous cities were founded by the Thracians and enjoyed centuries of overall prosperity and cultural and commercial development.

In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries BC brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, and that kingdom fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century BC.

 

The Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar builds empire, destroys Jerusalem (586 BC). Babylonian captivity of the Jews (starting 587 BC). Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Cyrus the Great of Persia creates great empire, conquers Babylon (539 BC), frees the Jews. Athenian democracy develops. Aeschylus, Greek dramatist (525 – 465 BC), Pythagoras, Greek philosopher and mathematician (582 – 507 BC). Confucius (551 – 479 BC) develops ethical and social philosophy in China. The Analects or Lun-yü (‘collected sayings) are compiled by the second generation of Confucian disciples. Buddha (563-483 BC) founds Buddhism in India.

480 BC. Unlike the population of the Aegean region, the Satrians who lived in the Rhodopes were the only Thracians who did not pledge vassal allegiance to King Xerxes. The Bessians were the descendents of kings and oracles and it was they who guarded the temple of Dionysus which was the seat of an oracle. that was as well known in the Ancient World as was that of Delphi. The archaeological finds indicate that Perperikon was the site of that temple.

The time of Alexander the Great who succeeded in conquering the whole world.

In April of 334 BC, just before he invaded the Persian Empire, he visited the temple of Dionysus, near Perperikon, and the oracle prophesied that he would conquer the whole world.

The Romans established a World Empire imposing their rule on the Thracians by force.

A period of great cultural progress. The Romans preserved and promoted the old cult of God Dionysus. Towns with strong acropolises and a considerable number of palaces and churches in the inner yard thrived.

During the reign of the emperors Arcadius and Flavius Honorius the Empire was divided into two – Western and Eastern (the Byzantine Empire). On August 24, 410 the visigoths of King Alaric attacked and sacked Rome.

The conversion of the Bessians to Christianity in the Rhodopes is connected with the work of the missionary Nicetas Bishop of Remesian. The Holy Books (Biblia Bessica) were translated into their language which had probably become the language of Perperikon.

This was a period of serious ideological clashes. The Byzantine Empire was engaged in life-and-death wars against invading Arabs and Bulgarians. Charles I, the Great (Charlemagne) established the Frankish Empire in Western Europe.

The Bulgarian nomad-tribes were living in Kashmir and 2300BC and earlier they were named “vagali”, which meant blacky, with dark hair and eyes. There they lived according to the Laws of God, and made a Testament with God, and God loved them and blessed them. And they had everything they needed – horses, that gave them means of living for cultivating their land, means of war, milk etc. - the more horses one had, the richer he was - houses /auls/ and good luck. As a sign of the testament the proto-bulgarians kept hairs only on top of their heads as a horse-tail, which symbolized that they keep only the thoughts devoted to God. Their war-flags were the horsetails, which meant “God with us”. And they named themselves “b`ogary”, which in Sanskrit meant God`s delight.

In return, the olden Bulgarians had to live and organize their state according to the Laws of the Supreme.

For the good steps in their life they were rewarded with a strong state, because Bulgaria on the Balkans is not the first Bulgarian State. And Bulgaria on the Balkans three times reached the shore of three seas, and created the Slavonic alphabet, and Literary Schools earlier than any other country in Europe, and it gave the world the bogomilien, bearers of esoteric Christianity, that spread all over Europe. It also gave the world, among numerous other things, the Bulgarian polyphony - not to be performed or listened to – but with sublime lyricism that is to be shared. The Bulgarians, proud of the fact that their Rhodopian songs are carried by the ‘Voyager’ as an archetype of humanity, say that their songs strive to reach the Cosmos.